You are more than who you think you are! Yes, that is correct. If you are still thinking of yourself as a single intelligent organism, then think again! I am referring to the 1013 (10 trillion) bacteria in your body, most of them living in your gut, feeding on you, and shown to protect your brain from different inflammatory diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

MS is a progressive autoimmune disease, meaning that your immune cells have a difficult time distinguishing your own cells from those aliens finding their way into your body. As a consequence, your immune cells mistakenly attack your own cells. In the case of MS, for instance, they attack the cells that are responsible for the production of a lipid sheet, called myelin, around your neural cells.

Myelin helps neural cells to communicate with each other in a faster, more efficient way. Upon disruption, neural cells might not be able to talk to each other properly, and you can imagine what devastating effects this miscommunication may have on your body. Gradual loss of myelin, for instance, has already been shown to be related to different dysfunctions in learning and memory.

Bacteria can help you against this autoimmune pathological condition. A new study published in the journal Cell Reports by Mangalam and colleagues showed that one specific strain of bacteria can be beneficial in reducing the overreactivity of immune cells in autoimmune diseases. In this way, bacteria have been proven to mitigate the effects of misunderstanding between your immune cells and cells producing myelin. By neutralizing your overreacting immune cells, indeed, these bacteria take the weapons away from your overreacting immune cells to kill other cells in your body.

It is amazing how these microbial strains could be utilized to fight with overreacting immune cells in your brain when they are not functioning for your well being. So, what do you think of these generally commensal, but potentially opportunistic pathogens living with you? Allies or enemies? This is the question!

Image By Kayleen Schreiber

References:

Mangalam, A., Shahi, S.K., Luckey, D., Karau, M., Marietta, E., Luo, N., Choung, R.S., Ju, J., Sompallae, R., Gibson-Corley, K., et al. (2017). Human Gut-Derived Commensal Bacteria Suppress CNS Inflammatory and Demyelinating Disease. Cell Rep 20, 1269-1277.

Amin Kamaleddin

Amin Kamaleddin

Amin is a PhD student in the lab of Steven Prescott at the University of Toronto, using electrophysiological recordings in spinal cord slices to decipher how different cell types interact to control circuit function. He is also interested in analyzing the neural coding mechanisms in the brain. Beyond his contribution to provide scientific content for the lay audience, Amin is actively involved in the organization of outreach activities, aiming to make a stronger bond between science and society.
Amin Kamaleddin

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Amin Kamaleddin

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Amin is a PhD student in the lab of Steven Prescott at the University of Toronto, using electrophysiological recordings in spinal cord slices to decipher how different cell types interact to control circuit function. He is also interested in analyzing the neural coding mechanisms in the brain. Beyond his contribution to provide scientific content for the lay audience, Amin is actively involved in the organization of outreach activities, aiming to make a stronger bond between science and society.

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