Stimulating Neural Circuits with Magnetism

Brain stimulation might sound like some Frankensteinian demonstration from a Victorian science fair. But in reality, it is a contemporary technique making a huge impact in neuroscience by addressing a longstanding limitation of traditional methods for investigating human brain function. Such techniques, like EEG and fMRI, can only be used to infer the effects of a stimulus or task on brain activity, and not vice versa. For example, a scientist might use EEG to study the effect of a task like arm movement on brain activity, but how can one study the effect of brain activity on arm movement?Continue reading

Walking the Line: The Complexity of Punishment Decisions

One night, Mark withdraws $200 cash from an ATM. He is on his way to meet his family, and intends to treat everyone to a special dinner at his favorite restaurant for his wife’s birthday. Just as he finishes his transaction, Dan rounds the street corner, pulls out a knife, and threatens Mark to hand over the cash. Mark, without hesitation, hands over the money, but Dan stabs him in the stomach anyway. Dan runs off, leaving Mark injured on the sidewalk.Continue reading

Working Memory DLPFC Knowing Neurons Don Davies

Uncovering the Brain Circuitry of Short Term Memory

Have you ever asked for a phone number only to forget it moments later?  The only way to remember it is to rehearse the digits over and over in your head.  This is an example of working memory, which is a type of short-term memory for storage and manipulation of information necessary for higher order cognition.  Working memory is impaired in some diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s.  Since working memory is used for daily tasks, memory impairment often is associated with a reduced quality of life.  If scientists can understand how the brain circuitry creates working memory, scientists may be able to treat the cognitive symptoms of diseases that impair working memory.Continue reading