Stimulating Neural Circuits with Magnetism

Brain stimulation might sound like some Frankensteinian demonstration from a Victorian science fair. But in reality, it is a contemporary technique making a huge impact in neuroscience by addressing a longstanding limitation of traditional methods for investigating human brain function. Such techniques, like EEG and fMRI, can only be used to infer the effects of a stimulus or task on brain activity, and not vice versa. For example, a scientist might use EEG to study the effect of a task like arm movement on brain activity, but how can one study the effect of brain activity on arm movement?Continue reading

Brain Cigarette Knowing Neurons

The Strange Relationship between Nicotine and Parkinson’s Disease

According to the World Health Organization, smoking is responsible for approximately 6 million deaths in the world every year or one fatality every six seconds.  71% of all lung cancers and 42% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are attributable to tobacco use.  Oddly enough, not everything related to smoking is bad news: smokers seem to be protected against Parkinson’s disease.  Continue reading

Why Dopamine Makes People More Impulsive

Over the past few decades, the neurochemical dopamine has earned the reputation of being the brain’s reward molecule.  This image is built on observations that when animals and humans experience surges of dopamine, they feel rewarded and motivated to pursue more of the experience or substance which triggered the dopamine release.  Researchers theorize that this neurochemical is at the root of an ancient system that evolved to make us feel gratified and thus more likely to approach situations and objects that might satisfy our needs — anything from nutrition to the more sophisticated desires for social approval or even money, a universal ticket for access to most resources.Continue reading

Tangerines, Tomatoes, and Neuroinflammation! Oh My! Knowing Neurons

Tangerines, Tomatoes, and Neuroinflammation! Oh My!

While we are still in the midst of the flu season, we all try to stay as healthy as possible by consuming large quantities of Vitamin C.  Whether it’s chewable tablets, a powder to mix in your drink, or just plain orange juice, we have all learned the immune-boosting benefits of Vitamin C.  Interestingly, new evidence from citruses and tomatoes show that they may do more than fight the flu.  They can also prevent neuronal loss.Continue reading

Repaving Old Roads After Spinal Cord Injury by Knowing Neurons

Repaving Old Roads After Spinal Cord Injury

The World Health Organization estimates that as many as 500,000 people will experience spinal cord injuries (SCI) every year.  Researchers at the Center for Neuroprosthetics and Brain Mind Institute in Switzerland reported that approximately half of human spinal cord injuries lead to paralysis severe enough to keep the person in a wheelchair for the rest of his or her life.  An incomplete spinal cord injury is sufficient to cause severe motor impairments.  However, in most of these patients, a few nerve fiber bridges remain at the site of injury.  Can researchers figure out a way to repair these paths and help the patient regain functional movement after spinal cord injury?Continue reading

Mitochondria: More Than Just a Powerhouse

Mitochondria are frequently implicated in several human disease states. From neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease and Autism Spectrum Disorder, to metabolic conditions like diabetes and obesity, energy abnormalities are seen in diverse illnesses. In fact, mitochondrial dysfunctions have also been shown to be involved in Parkinson’s disease, Down syndrome, heart failure, and even cancer. What is the relevance of these tiny powerhouses in such diverse, seemingly unrelated conditions?Continue reading