Not just skin deep: Neurons detect pleasurable touch

What separates us from our physical environment is our skin. From the minute we wake up, we use our somatosensation to start our tangible interaction with the world. Is the water in the shower warm enough? Ouch, that razor blade hurts! These socks are really soft! All of these are sensations attributed to numerous neurons that innervate our skin. While some sensations are quick and call for immediate response (like a pinprick), others are relatively slow and grow on us (like the warmth of water or the pleasure during a massage).


The fast or slow nature of our response arises from anatomical differences between the nerve fibers conducting them. The fast-conducting fibers, Aβ afferents, are thick and myelinated, whereas the slow-conducting ones, C fibers, are thin and unmyelinated. The figure below depicts the differences between fast- and slow-conducting nerve fibers. Responses from the C fibers that perceive pleasurable touch or caress-like stroking (referred to as C-tactile afferents) are processed at the insular cortex, a region of the human brain responsible for positive feelings (Löken et al., 2009). This explains the feel-good sensation that comes with a gentle touch from a partner or foot massage!

Fast vs Slow-conducting fibers

Moving the fascinating science of “feel-good” neurons forward, a group of researchers at Caltech decided to study molecular subtypes of these C fibers in mice. They had previously identified a rare set of neurons in mice whose receptive field resembled that of human C-tactile fibers. These unmyelinated neurons were found to innervate hairy skin of rodents. The scientists hypothesized that these neurons were responsible for detecting massage-like strokes in mice (Vrontou et al., 2013).

The team designed state-of-the-art imaging techniques to monitor the activity of these neurons in real-time in a live mouse! To do this, the mice were genetically altered so that these neurons fluoresced only when they were active. Like all sensory neurons, these neurons project to the spinal cord, so the scientists were able to image these neurons using a microscope at the spinal cord. Then, they provided a stimulus to the hindpaw of the mouse – a brush stroke or a pinch. When the mouse’s hindpaw was gently petted, the special set of neurons lit up! However, these did not show any activity when the hindpaw was pinched. These results confirmed that these neurons uniquely detect only gentle, massage-like touch.

Having shown in vivo that there definitely are a population of “feel-good” neurons that exist in mice, the scientists decided to test its functionality using a behavioral test called the conditioned place preference test. They placed the mouse in a three-chamber arrangement, as shown below. The mouse entered through the center chamber and was able to differentiate between the left and right chambers because of their distinctive feel, smell, and color scheme. The researchers noted which chamber the mouse preferred. Then, the mouse was given a drug that activated the special set of neurons that detect pleasurable touch and was placed in the non-preferred chamber. This was hypothesized to make this chamber more appealing to the mouse. Indeed, the mouse soon preferred the chamber it had previous rejected! This change in place-preference behavior can be attributed to the sensation of pleasure that the mouse experienced with the firing of the “feel-good” neurons.

Conditioned place preference

This study successfully characterized, on a molecular level, the subset of C-fibers that uniquely recognize massage-like strokes in mice. The behavior test that accompanied the finding suggests that gentle touch can also have positively reinforcing effects.  Perhaps this explains why your pet grooms himself, since these gentle stroking trigger pleasant sensations, a behavior wired to  probably encourage self-hygiene.

So, the next time you’re getting a relaxing massage, remember to say a quick “thank you” to these “feel-good” neurons!



Löken L.S., Wessberg J., Morrison I., McGlone F. & Olausson H. (2009). Coding of pleasant touch by unmyelinated afferents in humans, Nature Neuroscience, 12 (5) 547-548. DOI: 

Vrontou S., Wong A.M., Rau K.K., Koerber H.R. & Anderson D.J. (2013). Genetic identification of C fibres that detect massage-like stroking of hairy skin in vivo, Nature, 493 (7434) 669-673. DOI:

Images adapted from Ocean/Corbis, and made by Anita Ramanathan.


Anita met neuroscience during her undergraduate project, and it was love at first sight. While majoring in biotechnology at the B.M.S. College of Engineering, Bangalore, she had the opportunity to learn about biochemical subtyping as a method for biomarker discovery in neurodevelopmental disorders. She then pursued a Master’s in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at USC. During her thesis project, her interest in translational neuroscience further evolved as she studied a kinase pathway (PI3K) highly implicated in autism. She currently belongs to the Neuroscience Graduate Program at USC and works on components of the blood-brain barrier and its integrity in animal models of neurological disorders. Outside the lab, Anita is very enthusiastic about educational and scientific storytelling! Some of her parallel interests include consumer psychology and behavior.